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Professional development is a process that needs time to grow and develop. Teachers should be given time to build a repertoire of skills and common vocabulary.

Learning profile adds to our understanding of students' performance and should be taken into account in classrooms in terms of both instruction and assessment. Students taught with a learning profile match outperform those taught in a more traditional manner.

What is the meaning of formative assessments? The latest information about how formative assessments are used in commercial testing is discussed in this article. Many commerical tests define and use formative assessments. An assessment that is formative needs to provide results that will give teachers information to adjust—or form, ongoing instruction and learning.

When students are matched to instruction suited to their learning preferences, they achieve significantly better than comparable students whose instruction is not matched to their learning preferences.

Thinking styles are examined as a way to differentiate in the classroom. Differences between thinking styles and learning styles are noted and discussed.


The achievement gap between Caucasian students and low income students of color drastically diminished in math, reading, and writing in this elementary school that used enriched curriculum and differentiation with all students. In addition, achievement gains occurred across student groups and attitudes about school improved as well.

Students in differentiated middle school classrooms showed statistically significant achievement outcomes compared to students in a different treatment group and to students in a control group.

When interest is tapped, learning is more likely to be rewarding and students are more likely to become autonomous learners.

While learning preferences vary over time and place, they are probably biologically based to some degree. Matching learning style preferences and conditions of learning is one way to improve learning.

When students are interested in what they study, there is a positive impact on both short- term and long- term learning.

Student motivation can be maintained over time if adults maintain environments where learners feel free to exchange ideas and share interests.

Students in small within-class learning groups achieve significantly more than students not learning in small groups. They also have more positive attitudes about learning and score stronger on self-concept measures. Student gains are greatest when instructional materials are varied by need for different instructional groups rather than using the same materials for all groups.

First grade children in Colombia whose reading instruction utilized the model of differentiating content, process, and product in response to student readiness, interest, and learning profile over a four month period had fewer oral reading errors, higher comprehension scores, fewer students scoring below grade level, and more students scoring above grade level than control students.

Research conducted in middle school science classrooms using differentiated science materials (differentiated by readiness, using small groups) was found to be statistically significant to raise test scores and high-stakes test scores when used in inclusive classrooms.

Students in a Chicago high school receiving more instruction from a differentiated instructional methodology outperformed students receiving less instruction from a differentiated methodology on ACT English, ACT Mathematics, ACT Reading, and ACT Composite.

When students are interested in what they study, there is an impact on both short-term and long- term learning.

Students who learned and expressed learning in preferred learning modes outperformed students who did not have that opportunity.

Addressing a student’s learning style through flexible teaching to address learning style results ingroups.

Teachers who develop primary grade classrooms with a multiple-intelligence focus demonstrate more flexibility in teaching and more student-centered instruction. These teachers developed more positive mindsets about students from low income and/or minority backgrounds.