- Chapman, C., & King, R. (2005). Eleven practical ways to guide teachers toward differentiation. Journal of Staff Development, 26(4), 20-25.
Professional development is a process that needs time to grow and develop. Teachers should be given time to build a repertoire of skills and common vocabulary.
- Grigorenko, E. and R. J. Sternberg (1997). Styles of thinking, abilities, and academic performance. Exceptional Children 63, 295-312.
Learning profile adds to our understanding of students' performance and should be taken into account in classrooms in terms of both instruction and assessment. Students taught with a learning profile match outperform those taught in a more traditional manner.
- Popham, W. J. (2006). Phony formative assessments: Buyer beware! Educational Leadership, 64(3), 86-87.
What is the meaning of formative assessments? The latest information about how formative assessments are used in commercial testing is discussed in this article. Many commerical tests define and use formative assessments. An assessment that is formative needs to provide results that will give teachers information to adjust—or form, ongoing instruction and learning.
- Sternberg, R. J. (1997). What does it mean to be smart? Educational Leadership 55(7), 20-24.
When students are matched to instruction suited to their learning preferences, they achieve significantly better than comparable students whose instruction is not matched to their learning preferences.
- Sternberg, R., & Grigorenko, E. (2005). Styles of thinking as a basis of differentiated instruction. Theory into Practice, 44(3), 245-253.
Thinking styles are examined as a way to differentiate in the classroom. Differences between thinking styles and learning styles are noted and discussed.
- What works for students at risk: A research synthesis
- Learning to love assessment
- Beecher, M., & Sweeny, S. (2008). Closing the achievement gap with curriculum enrichment and differentiation: One school’s story. Journal of Advanced Academics, 19(3), 502-530.
The achievement gap between Caucasian students and low income students of color drastically diminished in math, reading, and writing in this elementary school that used enriched curriculum and differentiation with all students. In addition, achievement gains occurred across student groups and attitudes about school improved as well.
- Brighton, C., Hertberg, H., Moon, T., Tomlinson, C., & Callahan, C. (2005). The feasibility of high-end learning in a diverse middle school. Research Monograph RM05210. Charlottesville, VA: National Research Center on the Gifted and Talented.
Students in differentiated middle school classrooms showed statistically significant achievement outcomes compared to students in a different treatment group and to students in a control group.
- Bruner, J. (1961). The act of discovery. Harvard Educational Review, 31, 21-32.
When interest is tapped, learning is more likely to be rewarding and students are more likely to become autonomous learners.
- Grigorenko, E. (1997). Are cognitive styles still in style? American Psychologist, 52, 700-712.
While learning preferences vary over time and place, they are probably biologically based to some degree. Matching learning style preferences and conditions of learning is one way to improve learning.
- Hebert, T. (1993). Reflections at graduations: The long-term impact of elementary school experiences in creative productivity. Roeper Review 16(1), 22-28.
When students are interested in what they study, there is a positive impact on both short- term and long- term learning.
- Hennessey, B. & S. Zbikowski (1993). Immunizing children against the negative effects of reward: A further examination of intrinsic motivation training techniques. Creativity Research Journal 6, 297-308.
Student motivation can be maintained over time if adults maintain environments where learners feel free to exchange ideas and share interests.
- Lou, Y., P. Abrami, et al. (1996). Within-class grouping: A meta-analysis. Review of Educational Research, 66, 423-428.
Students in small within-class learning groups achieve significantly more than students not learning in small groups. They also have more positive attitudes about learning and score stronger on self-concept measures. Student gains are greatest when instructional materials are varied by need for different instructional groups rather than using the same materials for all groups.
- Marulanda, M., Giraldo, P., & Lopez, L. (2006). Differentiated instruction for bilingual learners. Presentation at Annual Conference of the Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, San Francisco.
First grade children in Colombia whose reading instruction utilized the model of differentiating content, process, and product in response to student readiness, interest, and learning profile over a four month period had fewer oral reading errors, higher comprehension scores, fewer students scoring below grade level, and more students scoring above grade level than control students.
- Mastropieri, M. A., Scruggs, T. E., Norland, J. J., Berkeley, S., McDuffie, K., Tornquist, E.H., et al. (2006). Differentiated curriculum enhancement in inclusive middle school science: Effects on classroom and high-stakes tests. The Journal of Special Education, 40(3), 130-137.
Research conducted in middle school science classrooms using differentiated science materials (differentiated by readiness, using small groups) was found to be statistically significant to raise test scores and high-stakes test scores when used in inclusive classrooms.
- Rasmussen, F. (2006). Differentiated instruction as a means for improving achievement as measured by the American College Testing (ACT). A dissertation submitted to the Loyola University of Chicago School of Education.
Students in a Chicago high school receiving more instruction from a differentiated instructional methodology outperformed students receiving less instruction from a differentiated methodology on ACT English, ACT Mathematics, ACT Reading, and ACT Composite.
- Renninger, K. (1990). Children’s play interests, representations, and activity. In R. Fivush and J. Hudson, Knowing and remembering in young children. Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University. Emory Cognition Series, Vol. 3, 127-165.
When students are interested in what they study, there is an impact on both short-term and long- term learning.
- Sternberg, R., Torff, B., & Grigorenko, E. (1998). Teaching triarchically improves student achievement. Journal of Educational Psychology, 90, 374-384.
Students who learned and expressed learning in preferred learning modes outperformed students who did not have that opportunity.
- Sullivan, M. (1996). A meta-analysis of experimental research studies based on the Dunn and Dunn learning styles model and its relationship to academic achievement. National Forum of Applied Educational Research Journal 10(1).
Addressing a student’s learning style through flexible teaching to address learning style results ingroups.
- Tomlinson, C. A., C. Callahan, et al. (1997). Challenging expectations: Case studies of high- potential, culturally diverse young children. Gifted Child Quarterly 41(2), 5-17.
Teachers who develop primary grade classrooms with a multiple-intelligence focus demonstrate more flexibility in teaching and more student-centered instruction. These teachers developed more positive mindsets about students from low income and/or minority backgrounds.
- Tomlinson, C., Brighton, C., Hertberg, H., Callahan, C., Moon, T., Brimijoin, K., Conover, L., & Reynolds, T. (2004). Differentiating instruction in response to student readiness, interest, and learning profile in academically diverse classrooms: A review of literature. Journal for the Education of the Gifted, 27(2-3), 119-145.